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Journal Description

JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies is a PubMed-indexed journal that focuses on the development and evaluation of rehabilitation and assistive technologies, including assistive living.

As an open access journal, JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies is read by both clinicians and patients. The journal fosuses on readable and applied science that reports the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies. It publishes original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews). Articles are carefully copyedited and XML-tagged, ready for submission to PubMed Central.


Recent Articles:

  • Gait assessment using instrumented walkway and wearable devices. Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    The Impact of Reducing the Number of Wearable Devices on Measuring Gait in Parkinson Disease: Noninterventional Exploratory Study


    Background: Measuring free-living gait using wearable devices may offer higher granularity and temporal resolution than the current clinical assessments for patients with Parkinson disease (PD). However, increasing the number of devices worn on the body adds to the patient burden and impacts the compliance. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the impact of reducing the number of wearable devices on the ability to assess gait impairments in patients with PD. Methods: A total of 35 volunteers with PD and 60 healthy volunteers performed a gait task during 2 clinic visits. Participants with PD were assessed in the On and Off medication state using the Movement Disorder Society version of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). Gait features derived from a single lumbar-mounted accelerometer were compared with those derived using 3 and 6 wearable devices for both participants with PD and healthy participants. Results: A comparable performance was observed for predicting the MDS-UPDRS gait score using longitudinal mixed-effects model fit with gait features derived from a single (root mean square error [RMSE]=0.64; R2=0.53), 3 (RMSE=0.64; R2=0.54), and 6 devices (RMSE=0.54; R2=0.65). In addition, MDS-UPDRS gait scores predicted using all 3 models differed significantly between On and Off motor states (single device, P=.004; 3 devices, P=.004; 6 devices, P=.045). Conclusions: We observed a marginal benefit in using multiple devices for assessing gait impairments in patients with PD when compared with gait features derived using a single lumbar-mounted accelerometer. The wearability burden associated with the use of multiple devices may offset gains in accuracy for monitoring gait under free-living conditions. Trial Registration:

  • Source: freepik; Copyright: Paper photo created by jcomp; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Data-Driven Personalization of a Physiotherapy Care Pathway: Case Study of Posture Scanning


    Background: Advanced sensor, measurement, and analytics technologies are enabling entirely new ways to deliver health care. The increased availability of digital data can be used for data-driven personalization of care. Data-driven personalization can complement expert-driven personalization by providing support for decision making or even by automating some parts of decision making in relation to the care process. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze how digital data acquired from posture scanning can enhance physiotherapy services and enable more personalized delivery of physiotherapy. Methods: A case study was conducted with a company that designed a posture scan recording system (PSRS), which is an information system that can digitally record, measure, and report human movement for use in physiotherapy. Data were collected through interviews with different stakeholders, such as health care professionals, health care users, and the information system provider, and were analyzed thematically. Results: Based on the results of our thematic analysis, we propose three different types of support that posture scanning data can provide to enhance and enable more personalized delivery of physiotherapy: 1) modeling the condition, in which the posture scanning data are used to detect and understand the health care user’s condition and the root cause of the possible pain; 2) visualization for shared understanding, in which the posture scanning data are used to provide information to the health care user and involve them in more collaborative decision-making regarding their care; and 3) evaluating the impact of the intervention, in which the posture scanning data are used to evaluate the care progress and impact of the intervention. Conclusions: The adoption of digital tools in physiotherapy has remained low. Physiotherapy has also lacked digital tools and means to inform and involve the health care user in their care in a person-centered manner. In this study, we gathered insights from different stakeholders to provide understanding of how the availability of digital posture scanning data can enhance and enable personalized physiotherapy services.

  • Haptic Bracelets attached to lower limbs of participant living with Huntington's Disease. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Rhythmic Haptic Cueing Using Wearable Devices as Physiotherapy for Huntington Disease: Case Study


    Background: Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited genetic disorder that results in the death of brain cells. HD symptoms generally start with subtle changes in mood and mental abilities; they then degenerate progressively, ensuing a general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait, ultimately resulting in death. There is currently no cure for HD. Walking cued by an external, usually auditory, rhythm has been shown to steady gait and help with movement coordination in other neurological conditions. More recently, work with other neurological conditions has demonstrated that haptic (ie, tactile) rhythmic cues, as opposed to audio cues, offer similar improvements when walking. An added benefit is that less intrusive, more private cues are delivered by a wearable device that leaves the ears free for conversation, situation awareness, and safety. This paper presents a case study where rhythmic haptic cueing (RHC) was applied to one person with HD. The case study has two elements: the gait data we collected from our wearable devices and the comments we received from a group of highly trained expert physiotherapists and specialists in HD. Objective: The objective of this case study was to investigate whether RHC can be applied to improve gait coordination and limb control in people living with HD. While not offering a cure, therapeutic outcomes may delay the onset or severity of symptoms, with the potential to improve and prolong quality of life. Methods: The approach adopted for this study includes two elements, one quantitative and one qualitative. The first is a repeated-measures design with three conditions: before haptic rhythm (ie, baseline), with haptic rhythm, and after exposure to haptic rhythm. The second element is an in-depth interview with physiotherapists observing the session. Results: In comparison to the baseline, the physiotherapists noted a number of improvements to the participant’s kinematics during her walk with the haptic cues. These improvements continued in the after-cue condition, indicating some lasting effects. The quantitative data obtained support the physiotherapists’ observations. Conclusions: The findings from this small case study, with a single participant, suggest that a haptic metronomic rhythm may have immediate, potentially therapeutic benefits for the walking kinematics of people living with HD and warrants further investigation.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Usability and Acceptability of an App (SELFBACK) to Support Self-Management of Low Back Pain: Mixed Methods Study


    Background: Self-management is the key recommendation for managing nonspecific low back pain (LBP). However, there are well-documented barriers to self-management; therefore, methods of facilitating adherence are required. Smartphone apps are increasingly being used to support self-management of long-term conditions such as LBP. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the usability and acceptability of the SELFBACK smartphone app, designed to support and facilitate self-management of non-specific LBP. The app provides weekly self-management plans, comprising physical activity, strength and flexibility exercises, and patient education. The plans are tailored to the patient’s characteristics and symptom progress by using case-based reasoning methodology. Methods: The study was carried out in 2 stages using a mixed-methods approach. All participants undertook surveys, and semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with a subgroup of participants. Stage 1 assessed an app version with only the physical activity component and a web questionnaire that collects information necessary for tailoring the self-management plans. The physical activity component included monitoring of steps recorded by a wristband, goal setting, and a scheme for sending personalized, timely, and motivational notifications to the user’s smartphone. Findings from Stage 1 were used to refine the app and inform further development. Stage 2 investigated an app version that incorporated 3 self-management components (physical activity, exercises, and education). A total of 16 participants (age range 23-71 years) with ongoing or chronic nonspecific LBP were included in Stage 1, and 11 participants (age range 32-56 years) were included in Stage 2. Results: In Stage 1, 15 of 16 participants reported that the baseline questionnaire was easy to answer, and 84% (13/16) found the completion time to be acceptable. Overall, participants were positive about the usability of the physical activity component but only 31% (5/16) found the app functions to be well integrated. Of the participants, 90% (14/16) were satisfied with the notifications, and they were perceived as being personalized (12/16, 80%). In Stage 2, all participants reported that the web questionnaire was easy to answer and the completion time acceptable. The physical activity and exercise components were rated useful by 80% (8/10), while 60% (6/10) rated the educational component useful. Overall, participants were satisfied with the usability of the app; however, only 50% (5/10) found the functions to be well integrated, and 20% (2/10) found them to be inconsistent. Overall, 80% (8/10) of participants reported it to be useful for self-management. The interviews largely reinforced the survey findings in both stages. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that participants considered the SELFBACK app to be acceptable and usable and that they thought it would be useful for supporting self-management of LBP. However, we identified some limitations and suggestions useful to guide further development of the SELFBACK app and other mobile health interventions.

  • Consenting subject demonstrating the components of the AR Game. This is a picture of what the therapist sees. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Acceptability of a Mobile Phone–Based Augmented Reality Game for Rehabilitation of Patients With Upper Limb Deficits from Stroke: Case Study


    Background: Upper limb functional deficits are common after stroke and result from motor weakness, ataxia, spasticity, spatial neglect, and poor stamina. Past studies employing a range of commercial gaming systems to deliver rehabilitation to stroke patients provided short-term efficacy but have not yet demonstrated whether or not those games are acceptable, that is, motivational, comfortable, and engaging, which are all necessary for potential adoption and use by patients. Objective: The goal of the study was to assess the acceptability of a smartphone-based augmented reality game as a means of delivering stroke rehabilitation for patients with upper limb motor function loss. Methods: Patients aged 50 to 70 years, all of whom experienced motor deficits after acute ischemic stroke, participated in 3 optional therapy sessions using augmented reality therapeutic gaming over the course of 1 week, targeting deficits in upper extremity strength and range of motion. After completion of the game, we administered a 16-item questionnaire to the patients to assess the game’s acceptability; 8 questions were answered by rating on a scale from 1 (very negative experience) to 5 (very positive experience); 8 questions were qualitative. Results: Patients (n=5) completed a total of 23 out of 45 scheduled augmented reality game sessions, with patient fatigue as the primary factor for uncompleted sessions. Each patient consented to 9 potential game sessions and completed a mean of 4.6 (SE 1.3) games. Of the 5 patients, 4 (80%) completed the questionnaire at the end of their final gaming session. Of note, patients were motivated to continue to the end of a given gaming session (mean 4.25, 95% CI 3.31-5.19), to try other game-based therapies (mean 3.75, 95% CI 2.81-4.69), to do another session (mean 3.50, 95% CI 2.93-4.07), and to perform other daily rehabilitation exercises (mean 3.25, 95% CI 2.76-3.74). In addition, participants gave mean scores of 4.00 (95% CI 2.87-5.13) for overall experience; 4.25 (95% CI 3.31-5.19) for comfort; 3.25 (95% CI 2.31-4.19) for finding the study fun, enjoyable, and engaging; and 3.50 (95% CI 2.52-4.48) for believing the technology could help them reach their rehabilitation goals. For each of the 4 patients, their reported scores were statistically significantly higher than those generated by a random sampling of values (patient 1: P=.04; patient 2: P=.04; patient 4: P=.004; patient 5: P=.04). Conclusions: Based on the questionnaire scores, the patients with upper limb motor deficits following stroke who participated in our case study found our augmented reality game motivating, comfortable, engaging, and tolerable. Improvements in augmented reality technology motivated by this case study may one day allow patients to work with improved versions of this therapy independently in their own home. We therefore anticipate that smartphone-based augmented reality gaming systems may eventually provide useful postdischarge self-treatment as a supplement to professional therapy for patients with upper limb deficiencies from stroke.

  • Source: Mira Rehab; Copyright: Mira Rehab; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Rehabilitation Exergames: Use of Motion Sensing and Machine Learning to Quantify Exercise Performance in Healthy Volunteers


    Background: Performing physiotherapy exercises in front of a physiotherapist yields qualitative assessment notes and immediate feedback. However, practicing the exercises at home lacks feedback on how well patients are performing the prescribed tasks. The absence of proper feedback might result in patients performing the exercises incorrectly, which could worsen their condition. We present an approach to generate performance scores to enable tracking the progress by both the patient at home and the physiotherapist in the clinic. Objective: This study aims to propose the use of 2 machine learning algorithms, dynamic time warping (DTW) and hidden Markov model (HMM), to quantitatively assess the patient’s performance with respect to a reference. Methods: Movement data were recorded using a motion sensor (Kinect V2), capable of detecting 25 joints in the human skeleton model, and were compared with those of a reference. A total of 16 participants were recruited to perform 4 different exercises: shoulder abduction, hip abduction, lunge, and sit-to-stand exercises. Their performance was compared with that of a physiotherapist as a reference. Results: Both algorithms showed a similar trend in assessing participant performance. However, their sensitivity levels were different. Although DTW was more sensitive to small changes, HMM captured a general view of the performance, being less sensitive to the details. Conclusions: The chosen algorithms demonstrated their capacity to objectively assess the performance of physical therapy. HMM may be more suitable in the early stages of a physiotherapy program to capture and report general performance, whereas DTW could be used later to focus on the details. The scores enable the patient to monitor their daily performance. They can also be reported back to the physiotherapist to track and assess patient progress, provide feedback, and adjust the exercise program if needed.

  • Source:; Copyright: Freepik; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Optimizing Telehealth Experience Design Through Usability Testing in Hispanic American and African American Patient Populations: Observational Study


    Background: Telehealth-delivered pulmonary rehabilitation (telePR) has been shown to be as effective as standard pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) at improving the quality of life in patients living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is not known how effective telePR may prove to be among low-income, urban Hispanic American and African American patient populations. To address this question, a collaborative team at Northwell Health developed a telePR intervention and assessed its efficacy among low-income Hispanic American and African American patient populations. The telePR intervention system components included an ergonomic recumbent bike, a tablet with a built-in camera, and wireless monitoring devices. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess patient adoption and diminish barriers to use by initiating a user-centered design approach, which included usability testing to refine the telePR intervention prior to enrolling patients with COPD into a larger telePR study. Methods: Usability testing was conducted in two phases to identify opportunities to streamline and improve the patient experience. The first phase included a prefield usability testing phase to evaluate technical, patient safety, and environmental factors comprising the system architecture. This was followed by an ergonomic evaluation of user interactions with the bicycle, telehealth tablets, and connected wearable devices to ensure optimal placement and practical support for all components of the intervention. The second phase of research included feasibility testing to observe and further optimize the system based on iterative rounds of telePR sessions. Results: During usability and feasibility research, we identified and addressed multiple opportunities for system improvements. These included physical and environmental changes, modifications to accommodate individual patient factors, safety improvements, and technology upgrades. Each enrolled patient was subsequently identified and classified into one of the following 3 categories: (1) independent, (2) intermediate, or (3) dependent. This categorization was used to predict the level of training and support needed for successful participation in the telePR sessions. Feasibility results revealed that patients in the dependent category were unable to perform the rehab sessions without in-person support due to low technical acumen and difficulty with certain features of the system, even after modifications had been made. Intermediate and independent users, however, did exhibit increased independent utilization of telePR due to iterative improvements. Conclusions: Usability testing helped reduce barriers to use for two subsets of our population, the intermediate and independent users. In addition, it identified a third subset, dependent users, for whom the telePR solution was deemed unsuitable without in-person support. The study established the need for the development of standard operating procedures, and guides were created for both patients and remote respiratory therapists to facilitate the appropriate use of the telePR system intervention. Observational research also led to the development of standard protocols for the first and all subsequent telePR sessions. The primary goals in developing standardization protocols were to establish trust, ensure a positive experience, and encourage future patient engagement with telePR sessions.

  • Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: University of Toronto / Placeit; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Web-Based Health Coaching for Spinal Cord Injury: Results From a Mixed Methods Feasibility Evaluation


    Background: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at high risk of experiencing secondary conditions like pressure injuries. Self-management programs may reduce the risk of complications, but traditional programs have proven to be insufficiently tailored to the needs of people with SCI. To overcome barriers to self-management support, a web-based, self-management program was developed for Canadians with SCI called SCI & U. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and potential impact of the SCI & U program in the context of a mixed methods pilot study. Methods: The study followed an explanatory, sequential mixed methods design. Participants (N=11) were Canadians with SCI who had been living in the community for more than 1 year. Each took part in a self-paced, six-session self-management program guided by a trained peer health coach. During sessions, participants could discuss a health topic with their coach from a predefined list (eg, skin or bowel management). Quantitative data were gathered before and after program participation to assess program feasibility and impact. Feasibility measures included attrition rates, frequency of topics selected, and recorded goals, whereas impact measures included measures of self-efficacy (University of Washington Self-Efficacy Scale [UW-SES]), mood (Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale [PHQ-8]), secondary conditions (Spinal Cord Injury Secondary Conditions Scale [SCI-SCS]), and resilience (Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life Resilience Scale [SCI-QOL-R]). Qualitative measures were based on postintervention interviews; these were designed to confirm and expand on quantitative Results: Of the 11 participants, 10 completed pre- and postassessments, and 6 coaching sessions. Sessions lasted between 31 and 81 min (average 55, SD 13), and the duration of the program ranged from 35 to 88 days (average 56, SD 23). Diet and exercise were selected as topics 40% (20/50 sessions with topics) of the time, whereas topics such as mental health, bladder management, pain, and bowel management were chosen less frequently. Results gathered before and after the pilot study demonstrated improvements with moderate effect sizes on the UW-SES and the electronic health literacy scale (ie, Hedges g>0.5). Effect sizes for measures of resilience (SCI-QOL-R), depression (PHQ-8), and secondary conditions (SCI-SCS) were small (ie, Hedges g>0.3). Qualitative results confirmed a common focus on diet and exercise, and defined coaches as sources of accountability, information, reassurance and affirmation, and emotional and technical support. Conclusions: Results demonstrated that a web-based self-management program is feasible and acceptable by Canadians with SCI. Results also indicated a web-based, peer-led self-management program may impact resilience, self-efficacy, mood, and secondary complications. Finally, results illuminated the role of the coach in facilitating behavior change. Future work seeks to validate results in the context of a randomized controlled trial.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: protoolseh; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Stroke and Telerehabilitation: A Brief Communication

    Authors List:


    This rapid communication highlights stroke telerehabilitation, a health care service that provides daily monitoring of the care of patients recovering from stroke, delivering convenient and immediate feedback for patients, family, and caregivers. The delivery, management, and coordination of nursing care services, provided via telecommunications technology, is a convenient method of delivering health care to patients recovering from stroke. It is important to assess the service quality of the telehealth process and to establish the role of telehealth nursing and related technologies in the care of patients recovering from stroke. Studies show that even though both health professionals and participants have reported high levels of satisfaction and acceptance of telerehabilitation interventions, the quality of the evidence on telerehabilitation in poststroke care remains low. Conducting a quality study of telehealth rehabilitation for patients recovering from stroke will help assess if home health agencies with telehealth capabilities caring for patients recovering from stroke and patients with chronic diseases can provide quality care to patients in their home and fill this health care gap. Patients that are severely handicapped and impaired and unable to reside in their home environment are not included in telerehabilitation services provided by the home care agency. It would be informative to study the benefits of telerehabilitation and the care provided to patients recovering from stroke within nursing homes, given the need for social distancing to reduce disease transmission during the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global health pandemic. Using telerehabilitation would mean that patients have a lower risk of exposure to infectious agents. Further research into telehealth interventions and stroke management in home care is crucial.

  • Source: Unsplash; Copyright: Eric Gonzalez; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Web-Based Consumer Health Education About Back Pain: Findings of Potential Tensions From a Photo-Elicitation and Observational Study


    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, with huge social and economic impact. There is extensive extant literature investigating the efficacy of various management approaches ranging from surgery to psychological interventions to exercise. However, this work has focused almost entirely on efficacy in terms of pain reduction, functional improvement, and psychological changes. This focus has meant that unanticipated social or socio-cultural effects of back pain health care have received little attention. Objective: This study aimed to scrutinize some of the conceptual tensions inherent in contemporary LBP health care approaches and to highlight their material effects. Methods: We used a qualitative research design adapted from discourse analysis, which was able to consider key discursive tensions underpinning a LBP website. Data collection involved observing the interaction between adult participants with LBP and the website in the following two ways: (1) observational interview, where participants were observed interacting with the website for the first time and asked to discuss their responses to it as they moved through the website and (2) photo-elicitation, where for a month after their first use of the website, people took photographs of what was happening in their lives when they thought of the website and discussed them in a follow-up interview. We used a postcritical discourse analysis approach to examine data produced from these methods. Results: Our postcritical discourse analysis identified key discursive tensions, including between living with and reducing LBP, keeping active and resting, and patient choice and giving guidance. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests ways for considering less dominant perspectives without having to discard the benefits of dominant ones. Although the focus of LBP discourses has changed (less biomedical and less about cure), they still hold on to some of the problematic dominant paradigmatic concepts such as biomedicine and individualism. The tensions we highlight are likely to be highly useful for teaching and implementing LBP care across multiple health care settings. Trial Registration:

  • CI patient training with the Train2hear program. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Therapist-Guided Telerehabilitation for Adult Cochlear Implant Users: Developmental and Feasibility Study


    Background: Cochlear implants can provide auditory perception to many people with hearing impairment who derive insufficient benefits from hearing aid use. For optimal speech perception with a cochlear implant, postoperative auditory training is necessary to adapt the brain to the new sound transmitted by the implant. Currently, this training is usually conducted via face-to-face sessions in rehabilitation centers. With the aging of society, the prevalence of age-related hearing loss and the number of adults with cochlear implants are expected to increase. Therefore, augmenting face-to-face rehabilitation with alternative forms of auditory training may be highly valuable. Objective: The purpose of this multidisciplinary study was to evaluate the newly developed internet-based teletherapeutic multimodal system Train2hear, which enables adult cochlear implant users to perform well-structured and therapist-guided hearing rehabilitation sessions on their own. Methods: The study was conducted in 3 phases: (1) we searched databases from January 2005 to October 2018 for auditory training programs suitable for adult cochlear implant users; (2) we developed a prototype of Train2hear based on speech and language development theories; (3) 18 cochlear implant users (mean age 61, SD 15.4 years) and 10 speech and language therapists (mean age 34, SD 10.9 years) assessed the usability and the feasibility of the prototype. This was achieved via questionnaires, including the System Usability Scale (SUS) and a short version of the intrinsic motivation inventory (KIM) questionnaires. Results: The key components of the Train2hear training program are an initial analysis according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; a range of different hierarchically based exercises; and an automatic and dynamic adaptation of the different tasks according to the cochlear implant user’s progress. In addition to motivational mechanisms (such as supportive feedback), the cochlear implant user and therapist receive feedback in the form of comprehensive statistical analysis. In general, cochlear implant users enjoyed their training as assessed by KIM scores (mean 19, SD 2.9, maximum 21). In terms of usability (scale 0-100), the majority of users rated the Train2hear program as excellent (mean 88, SD 10.5). Age (P=.007) and sex (P=.01) had a significant impact on the SUS score with regard to usability of the program. The therapists (SUS score mean 93, SD 9.2) provided slightly more positive feedback than the cochlear implant users (mean 85, SD 10.3). Conclusions: Based on this first evaluation, Train2hear was well accepted by both cochlear implant users and therapists. Computer-based auditory training might be a promising cost-effective option that can provide a highly personalized rehabilitation program suited to individual cochlear implant user characteristics.

  • Source: Image created by the authors; Copyright: The Authors / Placeit; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Effectiveness of a Home-Based Rehabilitation Program After Total Hip Arthroplasty Driven by a Tablet App and Remote Coaching: Nonrandomized Controlled Trial...


    Background: Recent technological developments such as wearable sensors and tablets with a mobile internet connection hold promise for providing electronic health home-based programs with remote coaching for patients following total hip arthroplasty. It can be hypothesized that such a home-based rehabilitation program can offer an effective alternative to usual care. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a home-based rehabilitation program driven by a tablet app and remote coaching for patients following total hip arthroplasty. Methods: Existing data of two studies were combined, in which patients of a single-arm intervention study were matched with historical controls of an observational study. Patients aged 18-65 years who had undergone total hip arthroplasty as a treatment for primary or secondary osteoarthritis were included. The intervention consisted of a 12-week home-based rehabilitation program with video instructions on a tablet and remote coaching (intervention group). Patients were asked to do strengthening and walking exercises at least 5 days a week. Data of the intervention group were compared with those of patients who received usual care (control group). Effectiveness was measured at four moments (preoperatively, and 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively) by means of functional tests (Timed Up & Go test and the Five Times Sit-to Stand Test) and self-reported questionnaires (Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [HOOS] and Short Form 36 [SF-36]). Each patient of the intervention group was matched with two patients of the control group. Patient characteristics were summarized with descriptive statistics. The 1:2 matching situation was analyzed with a conditional logistic regression. Effect sizes were calculated by Cohen d. Results: Overall, 15 patients of the intervention group were included in this study, and 15 and 12 subjects from the control group were matched to the intervention group, respectively. The intervention group performed functional tests significantly faster at 12 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The intervention group also scored significantly higher on the subscales “function in sport and recreational activities” and “hip-related quality of life” of HOOS, and on the subscale “physical role limitations” of SF-36 at 12 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. Large effect sizes were found on functional tests at 12 weeks and at 6 months (Cohen d=0.5-1.2), endorsed by effect sizes on the self-reported outcomes. Conclusions: Our results clearly demonstrate larger effects in the intervention group compared to the historical controls. These results imply that a home-based rehabilitation program delivered by means of internet technology after total hip arthroplasty can be more effective than usual care. Trial Registration: NCT03846063; and German Registry of Clinical Trials DRKS00011345;

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  • Parents’ perspectives on a computer game-assisted rehabilitation program for manual dexterity in children with Cerebral Palsy: Qualitative analysis of expectations, child engagement, and benefits

    Date Submitted: Sep 15, 2020

    Open Peer Review Period: Sep 15, 2020 - Nov 10, 2020

    Background: A computer game-based rehabilitation (GRP) platform was developed that combines fine manipulation and gross movement exercises with engaging game activities appropriate for young children...

    Background: A computer game-based rehabilitation (GRP) platform was developed that combines fine manipulation and gross movement exercises with engaging game activities appropriate for young children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). A mixed method and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to examine the feasibility and to estimate effect size of two exercise programs for rehabilitation of manual dexterity of children with Cerebral Palsy: one using the GRP or the conventional therapy. Objective: Objectives of the present qualitative analysis were to investigate parents’ perspectives and opinions about expectations, challenges, and benefits between the two interventions. Methods: Parents of twenty-six of the children who completed the GRP program (n=33) and parents of fifteen of the children who completed the conventional therapy program (n=27) participated in the interviews. General conductive approach was used to analyse the data recorded during parents’ interviews. Results: Five themes captured the range of parent’s experiences, viewpoints, and ideas. They were 1. Parents’ expectations, 2. Child’s Engagement with Therapy, 3. Positive Effects of Interventions, 4. Challenges, and 5. Improving the Protocol. Conclusions: Parents from both groups recognized that their expectations related to improving children’s object handling and manipulation skills including participation in activities of daily life (ADL) were addressed during the 16-week therapy program. Parents perceived a change in the children’s level of independence in their daily tasks at home, school, and leisure activities. Clinical Trial: http: