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Journal Description

JMIR Rehab is a PubMed-indexed sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (Impact Factor 2018: 4.945), focusing on development and evaluation of rehabilitation and assistive technologies, including assistive living.

As an open access journal, we are read by clinicians and patients alike and have (as all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies. We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews). Articles are carefully copyedited and XML-tagged, ready for submission in PubMed Central.

 

Recent Articles:

  • Novel biofeedback system combines a AI-powered Digital Therapist with experienced clinical teams to maximize rehabilitation outcomes. Source: SWORD Health; Copyright: SWORD Health; URL: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1Xnl4BBv6EuYQunIi0diO_nQVjIo6Gh3Q; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Digital Versus Conventional Rehabilitation After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Single-Center, Parallel-Group Pilot Study

    Abstract:

    Background: The demand for total hip arthroplasty (THA) is rising. In the face of rapidly increasing health care costs, ensuring widespread, cost-effective rehabilitation is a priority. Technologies allowing independent home-based rehabilitation may be the key to facilitate access, improve effectiveness, and lower costs of care. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a novel artificial intelligence–powered digital biofeedback system following THA and compare the clinical outcomes against supervised conventional rehabilitation. Methods: This was a single-center, parallel-group pilot study, with an 8-week intervention program. Patients were assessed at baseline, during the program (at 4 and 8 weeks), and 3 and 6 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the Timed Up and Go (TUG) score and secondary outcomes were the Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale (HOOS; a patient-reported outcome) and hip range of motion (ROM). Results: A total of 66 patients were included: 35 digital physiotherapy (PT) versus 31 conventional. There were no differences at baseline between groups except for lower HOOS quality of life (QoL) subscale scores in the digital PT group. Clinically relevant improvements were noted in both groups at all time points. The digital PT group showed a retention rate of 86% (30/35). Per-protocol analysis revealed a superiority of the digital PT group for all outcome measures. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed the superiority of the digital PT group at all time points for TUG (change between baseline and 4 and 8 weeks: P<.001; change between baseline and 3 and 6 months: P=.001 and P=.005, respectively), with a difference between median changes of −4.79 seconds (95% CI −7.24 to −1.71) at 6 months post-THA. Between baseline and month 6, results were also superior in the digital PT group for the HOOS sports and QoL subscales and all ROM except for standing flexion. Conclusions: This study demonstrates this novel solution holds promise in rehabilitation after THA, ensuring better clinical outcomes than conventional rehabilitation while reducing dependence on human resources. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03045549; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03045549

  • The Bern Aphasia App. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: https://rehab.jmir.org/2019/1/e13163; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Therapist-Guided Tablet-Based Telerehabilitation for Patients With Aphasia: Proof-of-Concept and Usability Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Aphasia is the loss or impairment of language functions and affects everyday social life. The disorder leads to the inability to understand and be understood in both written and verbal communication and affects the linguistic modalities of auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reading, and writing. Due to heterogeneity of the impairment, therapy must be adapted individually and dynamically to patient needs. An important factor for successful aphasia therapy is dose and intensity of therapy. Tablet computer–based apps are a promising treatment method that allows patients to train independently at home, is well accepted, and is known to be beneficial for patients. In addition, it has been shown to ease the burden of therapists. Objective: The aim of this project was to develop an adaptive multimodal system that enables aphasic patients to train at home using language-related tasks autonomously, allows therapists to remotely assign individualized tasks in an easy and time-efficient manner, and tracks the patient’s progress as well as creation of new individual exercises. Methods: The system consists of two main parts: (1) the patient’s interface, which allows the patient to exercise, and (2) the therapist’s interface, which allows the therapist to assign new exercises to the patient and supervise the patient’s progress. The pool of exercises is based on a hierarchical language structure. Using questionnaires, therapists and patients evaluated the system in terms of usability (ie, System Usability Scale) and motivation (ie, adapted Intrinsic Motivation Inventory). Results: A total of 11 speech and language therapists (age: mean 28, SD 7 years) and 15 patients (age: mean 53, SD 10 years) diagnosed with aphasia participated in this study. Patients rated the Bern Aphasia App in terms of usability (scale 0-100) as excellent (score >70; Z=–1.90; P=.03) and therapists rated the app as good (score >85; Z=–1.75; P=.04). Furthermore, patients enjoyed (scale 0-6) solving the exercises (score>3; mean 3.5, SD 0.40; Z=–1.66; P=.049). Conclusions: Based on the questionnaire scores, the system is well accepted and simple to use for patients and therapists. Furthermore, the new tablet computer–based app and the hierarchical language exercise structure allow patients with different types of aphasia to train with different doses and intensities independently at home. Thus, the novel system has potential for treatment of patients with aphasia as a supplement to face-to-face therapy.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: https://rehab.jmir.org/2019/1/e13233; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Video Remote Interpreting Technology in Health Care: Cross-Sectional Study of Deaf Patients’ Experiences

    Abstract:

    Background: The advent of new rehabilitation and assistive technologies has led to the creation of video remote interpreting (VRI) as an accessible communication technology for deaf patients. Although there has been a rapid growth in the use of VRI technology by health care providers, there is scant published information on VRI users and their satisfaction. Current, timely data are needed to understand deaf patients’ use and satisfaction with the quality of VRI technology in health care settings. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the national trends of deaf patients’ satisfaction with the quality of video remote interpreting (VRI) in health settings and recommend actions to improve VRI quality and deaf patients’ satisfaction with VRI in health care settings. Methods: Secondary data related to deaf adults’ experiences of using VRI service in a medical setting were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language, which was administered to a US sample of deaf adults between 2016 and 2018. Results: Among our VRI users (N=555, all in the United States) who answered questions about VRI usage in health between 2016 and 2018, only 41% were satisfied with the quality of the VRI technology service. Respondents with fewer years of education or those who were male were more likely to rate the VRI quality as acceptable. After adjusting for covariates in a binary regression analysis, deaf patients’ self-reported interference (ie, VRI interpreter’s interference with disclosure of health information) increased patient dissatisfaction with the quality of VRI technology service by three-fold. Conclusions: To increase satisfaction with VRI technology service in health care and rehabilitation settings among deaf patients, special attention needs to be given to video technology, as the use of sign language requires high-fidelity video for optimal communication between the interpreter and patient. To promote the willingness to disclose medical information through VRI among deaf patients, the interpreter must be highly skilled in both expressive and receptive communication and have the requisite background in medicine and rehabilitation.

  • Source: Rawpixel; Copyright: Rawpixel; URL: https://www.rawpixel.com/image/1474/free-photo-class-students-technology; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Design Requirements for a Digital Aid to Support Adults With Mild Learning Disabilities During Clinical Consultations: Qualitative Study With Experts

    Abstract:

    Background: Adults with mild learning disabilities (MLDs) face a plethora of obstacles when accessing effective health care. Central to many of these barriers is communication, with medical practitioners often remaining untrained on how to interact with patients who have learning disabilities (LDs). To date, research on how to promote this communication has largely centered on the development of low-tech aids. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of utilizing tablet technologies to promote communication between general practitioners and patients with MLDs. We achieved this by identifying a set of design requirements from experts in LDs. Methods: A set of design guidelines was formed during a 2-phase process. Phase 1 involved conducting a series of requirements-gathering interviews with 10 experts in LDs—the protocol of which emerged from the results of a separate scoping review. The interviews were subjected to a framework analysis to discern the key requirements discussed by the experts, and these were embedded within a technology probe. In phase 2, this probe was presented to a subset (n=4) of the experts during a round of usability studies, and the feedback received was used to update the requirements identified in phase 1. Results: An initial set of design requirements has been produced that may assist in the development of clinical Alternative and Augmentative Communication technologies for adults with MLDs. Factors that must be considered range from the health, physical and cognitive needs of stakeholders, to the more individual needs of users. Conclusions: The experts involved in the study were optimistic about the proposed app. They believe that such technologies can help to alleviate time constraints and promote communication by presenting information in a form understood by both practitioners and patients.

  • SWORD Phoenix uses AI and motion tracking to understand the performance of each patient, providing real-time feedback during treatment, under remote guidance from clinical teams. Source: SwordHealth; Copyright: SwordHealth; URL: http://www.swordhealth.com; License: Fair use/fair dealings.

    Medium-Term Outcomes of Digital Versus Conventional Home-Based Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Prospective, Parallel-Group Feasibility Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Physical rehabilitation is recommended after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). With the expected increase in TKA over the next few decades, it is important to find new ways of delivering cost-effective interventions. Technological interventions have been developed with this intent, but only preliminary evidence exists regarding their validity, with short follow-up times. Objective: This study aimed to present the follow-up results of a feasibility study comparing two different home-based programs after TKA: conventional face-to-face sessions and a digital intervention performed through the use of an artificial intelligence-powered biofeedback system under remote clinical monitoring. Methods: The digital intervention uses a motion tracker allowing 3D movement quantification, a mobile app and a Web portal. This study presents the results of the previous single-center, prospective, parallel-group, feasibility study including an 8-week active treatment stage and further assessments at 3 and 6 months post-TKA. Primary outcome was the Timed Up and Go score, and secondary outcomes were the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale (KOOS) score and knee range of motion. Results: A total of 59 patients completed the study (30 in the digital intervention group and 29 in the conventional rehabilitation group) and follow-up assessments. During the active treatment stage, patients in the digital intervention group demonstrated high engagement and satisfaction levels, with an 82% retention rate. Both groups attained clinically relevant improvements from baseline to 6 months post-TKA. At the end of the 8-week program, clinical outcomes were superior in the digital intervention group. At the 3- and 6-month assessments, the outcomes remained superior for the Timed Up and Go score (P<.001) and all KOOS subscale scores (at 3 months, P<.001 overall; at 6 months, KOOS Symptoms: P=.006, Pain: P=.002, Activities of Daily Living: P=.001, Sports: P=.003, and Quality of Life: P=.001). There was progressive convergence between both groups in terms of the knee range of motion, which remained higher for standing flexion in the digital intervention group than the conventional group at 6 months (P=.01). For the primary outcome, at 6 months, the median difference between groups was 4.87 seconds (95% CI 1.85-7.47), in favor of the digital intervention group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that this novel digital intervention for independent home-based rehabilitation after TKA is feasible, engaging, and capable of maximizing clinical outcomes in comparison to conventional rehabilitation in the short and medium term; in addition, this intervention is far less demanding in terms of human resources. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03047252; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03047252

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: Freepik; URL: https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/young-doctor-examining-aching-back-of-elderly-man_3038046.htm; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Global Consensus From Clinicians Regarding Low Back Pain Outcome Indicators for Older Adults: Pairwise Wiki Survey Using Crowdsourcing

    Abstract:

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most debilitating conditions among older adults. Unfortunately, existing LBP outcome questionnaires are not adapted for specific circumstances related to old age, which may make these measures less than ideal for evaluating LBP in older adults. Objective: To explore the necessity of developing age-specific outcome measures, crowdsourcing was conducted to solicit opinions from clinicians globally. Methods: Clinicians around the world voted and/or prioritized various LBP outcome indicators for older adults on a pairwise wiki survey website. Seven seed outcome indicators were posted for voting while respondents were encouraged to suggest new indicators for others to vote/prioritize. The website was promoted on the social media of various health care professional organizations. An established algorithm calculated the mean scores of all ideas. A score >50 points means that the idea has >50% probability of beating another randomly presented indicator. Results: Within 42 days, 128 respondents from 6 continents cast 2466 votes and proposed 14 ideas. Indicators pertinent to improvements of physical functioning and age-related social functioning scored >50 while self-perceived reduction of LBP scored 32. Conclusions: This is the first crowdsourcing study to address LBP outcome indicators for older adults. The study noted that age-specific outcome indicators should be integrated into future LBP outcome measures for older adults. Future research should solicit opinions from older patients with LBP to develop age-specific back pain outcome measures that suit clinicians and patients alike.

  • Robotic exoskeleton. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://rehab.jmir.org/2019/1/e11023/; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Walking With a Robotic Exoskeleton Does Not Mimic Natural Gait: A Within-Subjects Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Robotic exoskeleton devices enable individuals with lower extremity weakness to stand up and walk over ground with full weight-bearing and reciprocal gait. Limited information is available on how a robotic exoskeleton affects gait characteristics. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing a robotic exoskeleton affects temporospatial parameters, kinematics, and muscle activity during gait. Methods: The study was completed by 15 healthy adults (mean age 26.2 [SD 8.3] years; 6 males, 9 females). Each participant performed walking under 2 conditions: with and without wearing a robotic exoskeleton (EKSO). A 10-camera motion analysis system synchronized with 6 force plates and a surface electromyography (EMG) system captured temporospatial and kinematic gait parameters and lower extremity muscle activity. For each condition, data for 5 walking trials were collected and included for analysis. Results: Differences were observed between the 2 conditions in temporospatial gait parameters of speed, stride length, and double-limb support time. When wearing EKSO, hip and ankle range of motion (ROM) were reduced and knee ROM increased during the stance phase. However, during the swing phase, knee and ankle ROM were reduced when wearing the exoskeleton bionic suit. When wearing EKSO, EMG activity decreased bilaterally in the stance phase for all muscle groups of the lower extremities and in the swing phase for the distal muscle groups (tibialis anterior and soleus) as well as the left medial hamstrings. Conclusions: Wearing EKSO altered temporospatial gait parameters, lower extremity kinematics, and muscle activity during gait in healthy adults. EKSO appears to promote a type of gait that is disparate from normal gait in first-time users. More research is needed to determine the impact on gait training with EKSO in people with gait impairments.

  • 'F-words' in Childhood Disability Knowledge Hub. Source: CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research; Copyright: CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research; URL: http://rehab.jmir.org/2018/2/e10439/; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial (CC-BY-NC).

    A Web-Based Knowledge Translation Resource for Families and Service Providers (The “F-Words” in Childhood Disability Knowledge Hub): Developmental and...

    Abstract:

    Background: The “F-words in Childhood Disability” (Function, Family, Fitness, Fun, Friends, and Future) are an adaptation and an attempt to operationalize the World Health Organization’s (2001) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Since the paper was published (November 2011), the “F-words” have attracted global attention (>12,000 downloads, January 2018). Internationally, people have adopted the “F-words” ideas, and many families and service providers have expressed a need for more information, tools, and resources on the “F-words”. Objective: This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a Web-based knowledge translation (KT) resource, the “F-words” Knowledge Hub that was created to inform people about the “F-words” and to provide action-oriented tools to support the use of the “F-words” in practice. Methods: An integrated research team of families and researchers at CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research collaborated to develop, implement, and evaluate the Knowledge Hub. A pilot study design was chosen to assess the usability and utility of the Web-based hub before implementing a larger evaluation study. Data were collected using a brief anonymous Web-based survey that included both closed-ended and open-ended questions, with the closed-ended responses being based on a five-point Likert-type scale. We used descriptive statistics and a summary of key themes to report findings. Results: From August to November 2017, the Knowledge Hub received >6,800 unique visitors. In 1 month (November 2017), 87 people completed the survey, of whom 63 completed the full survey and 24 completed 1 or 2 sections. The respondents included 42 clinicians and 30 family members or individuals with a disability. The majority of people visited the Knowledge Hub 1-5 times (n=63) and spent up to 45 minutes exploring (n=61) before providing feedback. Overall, 66 people provided information on the perceived usefulness of the Knowledge Hub, of which 92% (61/66) found the Knowledge Hub user-friendly and stated that they enjoyed exploring the hub, and a majority (n=52) reported that the Knowledge Hub would influence what they did when working with others. From the open-ended responses (n=48), the “F-words” videos (n=21) and the “F-words” tools (n=15) were rated as the best features on the Knowledge Hub. Conclusions: The “F-words” Knowledge Hub is an evidence-informed Web-based KT resource that was useful for respondents, most of whom were seen as “early adopters” of the “F-words” concepts. Based on the findings, minor changes are to be made to improve the Knowledge Hub before completing a larger evaluation study on the impact at the family, clinician, and organizational levels with a wider group of users. Our hope is that the “F-words” Knowledge Hub will become a go-to resource for knowledge sharing and exchange for families and service providers.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://rehab.jmir.org/2018/2/e11748/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Use of a Low-Cost, Chest-Mounted Accelerometer to Evaluate Transfer Skills of Wheelchair Users During Everyday Activities: Observational Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Transfers are an important skill for many wheelchair users (WU). However, they have also been related to the risk of falling or developing upper limb injuries. Transfer abilities are usually evaluated in clinical settings or biomechanics laboratories, and these methods of assessment are poorly suited to evaluation in real and unconstrained world settings where transfers take place. Objective: The objective of this paper is to test the feasibility of a system based on a wearable low-cost sensor to monitor transfer skills in real-world settings. Methods: We collected data from 9 WU wearing triaxial accelerometer on their chest while performing transfers to and from car seats and home furniture. We then extracted significant features from accelerometer data based on biomechanical considerations and previous relevant literature and used machine learning algorithms to evaluate the performance of wheelchair transfers and detect their occurrence from a continuous time series of data. Results: Results show a good predictive accuracy of support vector machine classifiers when determining the use of head-hip relationship (75.9%) and smoothness of landing (79.6%) when the starting and ending of the transfer are known. Automatic transfer detection reaches performances that are similar to state of the art in this context (multinomial logistic regression accuracy 87.8%). However, we achieve these results using only a single sensor and collecting data in a more ecological manner. Conclusions: The use of a single chest-placed accelerometer shows good predictive accuracy for algorithms applied independently to both transfer evaluation and monitoring. This points to the opportunity for designing ubiquitous-technology based personalized skill development interventions for WU. However, monitoring transfers still require the use of external inputs or extra sensors to identify the start and end of the transfer, which is needed to perform an accurate evaluation.

  • The Task Generator is a Web tool that has been developed with the collaboration of 20 health professionals and uses computational models of cognitive function to deliver a highly personalized cognitive training. Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://rehab.jmir.org/2018/2/e10714/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Capturing Expert Knowledge for the Personalization of Cognitive Rehabilitation: Study Combining Computational Modeling and a Participatory Design Strategy

    Abstract:

    Background: Cognitive impairments after stroke are not always given sufficient attention despite the critical limitations they impose on activities of daily living (ADLs). Although there is substantial evidence on cognitive rehabilitation benefits, its implementation is limited because of time and human resource’s demands. Moreover, many cognitive rehabilitation interventions lack a robust theoretical framework in the selection of paper-and-pencil tasks by the clinicians. In this endeavor, it would be useful to have a tool that could generate standardized paper-and-pencil tasks, parameterized according to patients' needs. Objective: In this study, we aimed to present a framework for the creation of personalized cognitive rehabilitation tasks based on a participatory design strategy. Methods: We selected 11 paper-and-pencil tasks from standard clinical practice and parameterized them with multiple configurations. A total of 67 tasks were assessed according to their cognitive demands (attention, memory, language, and executive functions) and overall difficulty by 20 rehabilitation professionals. Results: After assessing the internal consistency of the data—that is, alpha values from .918 to .997—we identified the parameters that significantly affected cognitive functions and proposed specific models for each task. Through computational modeling, we operationalized the tasks into their intrinsic parameters and developed a Web tool that generates personalized paper-and-pencil tasks—the Task Generator (TG). Conclusions: Our framework proposes an objective and quantitative personalization strategy tailored to each patient in multiple cognitive domains (attention, memory, language, and executive functions) derived from expert knowledge and materialized in the TG app, a cognitive rehabilitation Web tool.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Sabine van Erp; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/hand-hands-old-old-age-ipad-2906434/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Assistive Technology for the Upper Extremities After Stroke: Systematic Review of Users’ Needs

    Abstract:

    Background: Technical innovations have the potential to compensate for loss of upper-limb motor functions after stroke. However, majority of the designs do not completely meet the needs and preferences of the end users. User-centered design methods have shown that the attention to user perspectives during development of assistive technology leads to devices that better suit the needs of the users. Objective: To get more insight into the factors that can bring the design of assistive technology to higher levels of satisfaction and acceptance, studies about user perspectives on assistive technology for the upper limb after stroke are systematically reviewed. Methods: A database search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus from inception to August 2017, supplemented with a search of reference lists. Methodological quality of the included studies was appraised. User perspectives of stroke survivors, carers, and health care professionals were extracted. A total of 35 descriptive themes were identified, from which 5 overarching themes were derived. Results: In total, 9 studies with information gathered from focus groups, questionnaires, and interviews were included. Barriers and enablers influencing the adoption of assistive technology for the upper limb after stroke emerged within 5 overarching but highly interdependent themes: (1) promoting hand and arm performance; (2) attitude toward technology; (3) decision process; (4) usability; and (5) practical applicability. Conclusions: Expected use of an assistive technology is facilitated when it has a clear therapeutic base (expected benefit in enhancing function), its users (patients and health care professionals) have a positive attitude toward technology, sufficient information about the assistive technology is available, and usability and practical applicability have been addressed successfully in its design. The interdependency of the identified themes implies that all aspects influencing user perspectives of assistive technology need to be considered when developing assistive technology to enhance its chance of acceptance. The importance of each factor may vary depending on personal factors and the use context, either at home as an assistive aid or for rehabilitation at a clinic.

  • The Fun, Interactive Therapy Board (FITBoard). Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://rehab.jmir.org/2018/2/e10307/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Tablet-Based Interactive Movement Tool for Pediatric Rehabilitation: Development and Preliminary Usability Evaluation

    Abstract:

    Background: Motivating interactive tools may increase adherence to repetitive practice for children with disabilities, but many virtual reality and active video gaming systems are too challenging for children with significant needs. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop and conduct a usability evaluation of the Fun, Interactive Therapy Board (FITBoard), a movement toy bridging digital and physical interactions for children with disabilities. Methods: The FITBoard is a tablet app involving games controlled by hand, head, or foot touch of configurable, wired surfaces. Usability evaluation involved a cognitive walkthrough and think-aloud processes. Participants verbalized aloud while completing a series of 26 task actions involved in selecting a game and configuring the FITBoard to achieve the therapeutic goal. Therapists then responded to questions about usability perceptions. Unsuccessful actions were categorized as goal or action failures. Qualitative content analysis supported understanding of usability problems. Results: Participants included 5 pediatric physical therapists and 2 occupational therapists from 2 clinical sites. Goal failure was experienced by all participants in 2 tasks, and action failure was experienced by all participants in 2 tasks. For 14 additional tasks, 1 or more patients experienced goal or action failure, with an overall failure rate of 69% (18 of 26 tasks). Content analysis revealed 4 main categories: hardware usability, software usability, facilitators of therapy goals, and improvement suggestions. Conclusions: FITBoard hardware and software changes are needed to address goal and action failures to rectify identified usability issues. Results highlight potential FITBoard applications to address therapeutic goals and outline important practical considerations for product use by therapists. Subsequent research will evaluate therapist, parent, and child perspectives on FITBoard clinical utility when integrated within regular therapy interventions.

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