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Journal Description

JMIR Rehab is a PubMed-indexed sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (Impact Factor 2017: 4.671), focusing on development and evaluation of rehabilitation and assistive technologies, including assistive living.

As an open access journal, we are read by clinicians and patients alike and have (as all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies. We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews). Articles are carefully copyedited and XML-tagged, ready for submission in PubMed Central.


Recent Articles:

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: Freepik; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Global Consensus From Clinicians Regarding Low Back Pain Outcome Indicators for Older Adults: Pairwise Wiki Survey Using Crowdsourcing


    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most debilitating conditions among older adults. Unfortunately, existing LBP outcome questionnaires are not adapted for specific circumstances related to old age, which may make these measures less than ideal for evaluating LBP in older adults. Objective: To explore the necessity of developing age-specific outcome measures, crowdsourcing was conducted to solicit opinions from clinicians globally. Methods: Clinicians around the world voted and/or prioritized various LBP outcome indicators for older adults on a pairwise wiki survey website. Seven seed outcome indicators were posted for voting while respondents were encouraged to suggest new indicators for others to vote/prioritize. The website was promoted on the social media of various health care professional organizations. An established algorithm calculated the mean scores of all ideas. A score >50 points means that the idea has >50% probability of beating another randomly presented indicator. Results: Within 42 days, 128 respondents from 6 continents cast 2466 votes and proposed 14 ideas. Indicators pertinent to improvements of physical functioning and age-related social functioning scored >50 while self-perceived reduction of LBP scored 32. Conclusions: This is the first crowdsourcing study to address LBP outcome indicators for older adults. The study noted that age-specific outcome indicators should be integrated into future LBP outcome measures for older adults. Future research should solicit opinions from older patients with LBP to develop age-specific back pain outcome measures that suit clinicians and patients alike.

  • Robotic exoskeleton. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Walking With a Robotic Exoskeleton Does Not Mimic Natural Gait: A Within-Subjects Study


    Background: Robotic exoskeleton devices enable individuals with lower extremity weakness to stand up and walk over ground with full weight-bearing and reciprocal gait. Limited information is available on how a robotic exoskeleton affects gait characteristics. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing a robotic exoskeleton affects temporospatial parameters, kinematics, and muscle activity during gait. Methods: The study was completed by 15 healthy adults (mean age 26.2 [SD 8.3] years; 6 males, 9 females). Each participant performed walking under 2 conditions: with and without wearing a robotic exoskeleton (EKSO). A 10-camera motion analysis system synchronized with 6 force plates and a surface electromyography (EMG) system captured temporospatial and kinematic gait parameters and lower extremity muscle activity. For each condition, data for 5 walking trials were collected and included for analysis. Results: Differences were observed between the 2 conditions in temporospatial gait parameters of speed, stride length, and double-limb support time. When wearing EKSO, hip and ankle range of motion (ROM) were reduced and knee ROM increased during the stance phase. However, during the swing phase, knee and ankle ROM were reduced when wearing the exoskeleton bionic suit. When wearing EKSO, EMG activity decreased bilaterally in the stance phase for all muscle groups of the lower extremities and in the swing phase for the distal muscle groups (tibialis anterior and soleus) as well as the left medial hamstrings. Conclusions: Wearing EKSO altered temporospatial gait parameters, lower extremity kinematics, and muscle activity during gait in healthy adults. EKSO appears to promote a type of gait that is disparate from normal gait in first-time users. More research is needed to determine the impact on gait training with EKSO in people with gait impairments.

  • 'F-words' in Childhood Disability Knowledge Hub. Source: CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research; Copyright: CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial (CC-BY-NC).

    A Web-Based Knowledge Translation Resource for Families and Service Providers (The “F-Words” in Childhood Disability Knowledge Hub): Developmental and...


    Background: The “F-words in Childhood Disability” (Function, Family, Fitness, Fun, Friends, and Future) are an adaptation and an attempt to operationalize the World Health Organization’s (2001) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Since the paper was published (November 2011), the “F-words” have attracted global attention (>12,000 downloads, January 2018). Internationally, people have adopted the “F-words” ideas, and many families and service providers have expressed a need for more information, tools, and resources on the “F-words”. Objective: This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a Web-based knowledge translation (KT) resource, the “F-words” Knowledge Hub that was created to inform people about the “F-words” and to provide action-oriented tools to support the use of the “F-words” in practice. Methods: An integrated research team of families and researchers at CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research collaborated to develop, implement, and evaluate the Knowledge Hub. A pilot study design was chosen to assess the usability and utility of the Web-based hub before implementing a larger evaluation study. Data were collected using a brief anonymous Web-based survey that included both closed-ended and open-ended questions, with the closed-ended responses being based on a five-point Likert-type scale. We used descriptive statistics and a summary of key themes to report findings. Results: From August to November 2017, the Knowledge Hub received >6,800 unique visitors. In 1 month (November 2017), 87 people completed the survey, of whom 63 completed the full survey and 24 completed 1 or 2 sections. The respondents included 42 clinicians and 30 family members or individuals with a disability. The majority of people visited the Knowledge Hub 1-5 times (n=63) and spent up to 45 minutes exploring (n=61) before providing feedback. Overall, 66 people provided information on the perceived usefulness of the Knowledge Hub, of which 92% (61/66) found the Knowledge Hub user-friendly and stated that they enjoyed exploring the hub, and a majority (n=52) reported that the Knowledge Hub would influence what they did when working with others. From the open-ended responses (n=48), the “F-words” videos (n=21) and the “F-words” tools (n=15) were rated as the best features on the Knowledge Hub. Conclusions: The “F-words” Knowledge Hub is an evidence-informed Web-based KT resource that was useful for respondents, most of whom were seen as “early adopters” of the “F-words” concepts. Based on the findings, minor changes are to be made to improve the Knowledge Hub before completing a larger evaluation study on the impact at the family, clinician, and organizational levels with a wider group of users. Our hope is that the “F-words” Knowledge Hub will become a go-to resource for knowledge sharing and exchange for families and service providers.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Use of a Low-Cost, Chest-Mounted Accelerometer to Evaluate Transfer Skills of Wheelchair Users During Everyday Activities: Observational Study


    Background: Transfers are an important skill for many wheelchair users (WU). However, they have also been related to the risk of falling or developing upper limb injuries. Transfer abilities are usually evaluated in clinical settings or biomechanics laboratories, and these methods of assessment are poorly suited to evaluation in real and unconstrained world settings where transfers take place. Objective: The objective of this paper is to test the feasibility of a system based on a wearable low-cost sensor to monitor transfer skills in real-world settings. Methods: We collected data from 9 WU wearing triaxial accelerometer on their chest while performing transfers to and from car seats and home furniture. We then extracted significant features from accelerometer data based on biomechanical considerations and previous relevant literature and used machine learning algorithms to evaluate the performance of wheelchair transfers and detect their occurrence from a continuous time series of data. Results: Results show a good predictive accuracy of support vector machine classifiers when determining the use of head-hip relationship (75.9%) and smoothness of landing (79.6%) when the starting and ending of the transfer are known. Automatic transfer detection reaches performances that are similar to state of the art in this context (multinomial logistic regression accuracy 87.8%). However, we achieve these results using only a single sensor and collecting data in a more ecological manner. Conclusions: The use of a single chest-placed accelerometer shows good predictive accuracy for algorithms applied independently to both transfer evaluation and monitoring. This points to the opportunity for designing ubiquitous-technology based personalized skill development interventions for WU. However, monitoring transfers still require the use of external inputs or extra sensors to identify the start and end of the transfer, which is needed to perform an accurate evaluation.

  • The Task Generator is a Web tool that has been developed with the collaboration of 20 health professionals and uses computational models of cognitive function to deliver a highly personalized cognitive training. Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Capturing Expert Knowledge for the Personalization of Cognitive Rehabilitation: Study Combining Computational Modeling and a Participatory Design Strategy


    Background: Cognitive impairments after stroke are not always given sufficient attention despite the critical limitations they impose on activities of daily living (ADLs). Although there is substantial evidence on cognitive rehabilitation benefits, its implementation is limited because of time and human resource’s demands. Moreover, many cognitive rehabilitation interventions lack a robust theoretical framework in the selection of paper-and-pencil tasks by the clinicians. In this endeavor, it would be useful to have a tool that could generate standardized paper-and-pencil tasks, parameterized according to patients' needs. Objective: In this study, we aimed to present a framework for the creation of personalized cognitive rehabilitation tasks based on a participatory design strategy. Methods: We selected 11 paper-and-pencil tasks from standard clinical practice and parameterized them with multiple configurations. A total of 67 tasks were assessed according to their cognitive demands (attention, memory, language, and executive functions) and overall difficulty by 20 rehabilitation professionals. Results: After assessing the internal consistency of the data—that is, alpha values from .918 to .997—we identified the parameters that significantly affected cognitive functions and proposed specific models for each task. Through computational modeling, we operationalized the tasks into their intrinsic parameters and developed a Web tool that generates personalized paper-and-pencil tasks—the Task Generator (TG). Conclusions: Our framework proposes an objective and quantitative personalization strategy tailored to each patient in multiple cognitive domains (attention, memory, language, and executive functions) derived from expert knowledge and materialized in the TG app, a cognitive rehabilitation Web tool.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Sabine van Erp; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Assistive Technology for the Upper Extremities After Stroke: Systematic Review of Users’ Needs


    Background: Technical innovations have the potential to compensate for loss of upper-limb motor functions after stroke. However, majority of the designs do not completely meet the needs and preferences of the end users. User-centered design methods have shown that the attention to user perspectives during development of assistive technology leads to devices that better suit the needs of the users. Objective: To get more insight into the factors that can bring the design of assistive technology to higher levels of satisfaction and acceptance, studies about user perspectives on assistive technology for the upper limb after stroke are systematically reviewed. Methods: A database search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus from inception to August 2017, supplemented with a search of reference lists. Methodological quality of the included studies was appraised. User perspectives of stroke survivors, carers, and health care professionals were extracted. A total of 35 descriptive themes were identified, from which 5 overarching themes were derived. Results: In total, 9 studies with information gathered from focus groups, questionnaires, and interviews were included. Barriers and enablers influencing the adoption of assistive technology for the upper limb after stroke emerged within 5 overarching but highly interdependent themes: (1) promoting hand and arm performance; (2) attitude toward technology; (3) decision process; (4) usability; and (5) practical applicability. Conclusions: Expected use of an assistive technology is facilitated when it has a clear therapeutic base (expected benefit in enhancing function), its users (patients and health care professionals) have a positive attitude toward technology, sufficient information about the assistive technology is available, and usability and practical applicability have been addressed successfully in its design. The interdependency of the identified themes implies that all aspects influencing user perspectives of assistive technology need to be considered when developing assistive technology to enhance its chance of acceptance. The importance of each factor may vary depending on personal factors and the use context, either at home as an assistive aid or for rehabilitation at a clinic.

  • The Fun, Interactive Therapy Board (FITBoard). Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Tablet-Based Interactive Movement Tool for Pediatric Rehabilitation: Development and Preliminary Usability Evaluation


    Background: Motivating interactive tools may increase adherence to repetitive practice for children with disabilities, but many virtual reality and active video gaming systems are too challenging for children with significant needs. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop and conduct a usability evaluation of the Fun, Interactive Therapy Board (FITBoard), a movement toy bridging digital and physical interactions for children with disabilities. Methods: The FITBoard is a tablet app involving games controlled by hand, head, or foot touch of configurable, wired surfaces. Usability evaluation involved a cognitive walkthrough and think-aloud processes. Participants verbalized aloud while completing a series of 26 task actions involved in selecting a game and configuring the FITBoard to achieve the therapeutic goal. Therapists then responded to questions about usability perceptions. Unsuccessful actions were categorized as goal or action failures. Qualitative content analysis supported understanding of usability problems. Results: Participants included 5 pediatric physical therapists and 2 occupational therapists from 2 clinical sites. Goal failure was experienced by all participants in 2 tasks, and action failure was experienced by all participants in 2 tasks. For 14 additional tasks, 1 or more patients experienced goal or action failure, with an overall failure rate of 69% (18 of 26 tasks). Content analysis revealed 4 main categories: hardware usability, software usability, facilitators of therapy goals, and improvement suggestions. Conclusions: FITBoard hardware and software changes are needed to address goal and action failures to rectify identified usability issues. Results highlight potential FITBoard applications to address therapeutic goals and outline important practical considerations for product use by therapists. Subsequent research will evaluate therapist, parent, and child perspectives on FITBoard clinical utility when integrated within regular therapy interventions.

  • A patient looking at his health data. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Birthe Dinesen; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    The Use of Telerehabilitation Technologies for Cardiac Patients to Improve Rehabilitation Activities and Unify Organizations: Qualitative Study


    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally causing 31% of all deaths worldwide. The Danish health care system is characterized by fragmented delivery of services and rehabilitation activities. The Teledialog Telerehabilitation Program for cardiac patients was developed and tested to rectify fragmentation and improve the quality of care. The Teledialog program was based on the assumption that a common communication platform shared by health care professionals, patients, and relatives could reduce or eliminate the fragmentation in the rehabilitation process and improve cooperation between the health professionals. Objective: This study aimed to assess the interorganizational cooperation between health care professionals across sectors (hospitals, municipal health care centers) in a cardiac telerehabilitation program. Methods: Theories of networks between organizations, the sociology of professions, and the “community of practice” approach were used in a case study of a cardiac telerehabilitation program. A triangulation of data collection techniques were used including documents, participant observation (n=76 hours), and qualitative interviews with healthcare professionals (n=37). Data were analyzed using NVivo 11.0. Results: The case study of cooperation in an interorganizational context of cardiac telerehabilitation program is characterized by the following key themes and patterns: (1) integrated workflows via a shared digital rehabilitation plan that help integrate workflow between health care professions and organizations, (2) joint clinical practice showed as a community of practice in telerehabilitation developed across professions and organizations, and (3) unifying the organizations as cooperation has advanced via a joint telerehabilitation program across municipalities and hospitals. Conclusions: The Teledialog Telerehabilitation Program was a new innovative cardiac program tested on a large scale across hospitals, health care centers, and municipalities. Assessments showed that the Teledialog program and its associated technologies helped improve interorganizational cooperation and reduce fragmentation. The program helped integrate the organizations and led to the creation of a community of practice. Further research is needed to explore long-term effects of implementation of telerehabilitation technologies and programs. Trial Registration: NCT01752192; (Archived by WebCite at

  • An ALS patient performing physical therapy. Source: Kay Zimmermann; Copyright: Ambulanzparter APST Soziotechnologie (Authors Thomas Meyer and Christoph Münch); URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Patient-Reported Outcome of Physical Therapy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Observational Online Study


    Background: Physical therapy is an essential component of multidisciplinary treatment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the meaning of physical therapy beside preservation of muscular strength and functional maintenance is not fully understood. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ perception of physical therapy during symptom progression using an internet assessment approach. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal, observational study was performed. Recruitment took place in an ALS center in Berlin, Germany. Online self-assessment was established on a case management platform over 6 months. Participants self-assessed the progression of the disease with the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and tracked the efficacy of targeted physical therapy using Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP). We used the net promoter score (NPS) to inquire into recommendation levels of physical therapy. Results: Forty-five participants with ALS were included in the study. Twenty-seven (60.0%) started the online assessment. The mean duration of physical therapy sessions per week was 142.7 minutes (SD 60.4) with a mean frequency of 2.9 (SD 1.2) per week. As defined by MYMOP input, the most concerning symptoms were reported in the legs (62.2%), arms (31.1%), and less frequently in the torso (6.7%). As expected for a progressive disease, there was a functional decline of 3 points in the ALSFRS-R at the end of the observation period (n=20). Furthermore, the MYMOP showed a significant loss of 0.8 in the composite score, 0.9 in the activity score and 0.8 in the targeted symptom. In spite of functional decline, the recommendation for physical therapy jumped from a baseline value of 20 NPS points to a very high 50 points at the end of study (P=.05). Conclusions: Physical therapy is perceived as an important treatment method by patients with ALS. Despite functional deterioration, patients are satisfied with physical therapy and recommend this intervention. The results also underline how the meaning of physical therapy changes throughout the disease. Physical therapy in ALS has to be regarded as a supportive and palliative health care intervention beyond functional outcome parameters.

  • Collage of diverse care settings (emergencies, medical care, geriatric care...) and different stakeholders (patients, doctors, care professionals). Source: Kasugai, RWTH Aachen University; Copyright: Kasugai, RWTH Aachen University; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    They Don’t Care About Us! Care Personnel’s Perspectives on Ambient Assisted Living Technology Usage: Scenario-Based Survey Study


    Background: Demographic change represents enormous burdens for the care sectors, resulting in high proportions of (older) people in need of care and a lack of care staff. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies have the potential to support the bottlenecks in care supply but are not yet in widespread use in professional care contexts. Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate professional caregivers’ AAL technology acceptance and their perception regarding specific technologies, data handling, perceived benefits, and barriers. In particular, this study focuses on the perspectives on AAL technologies differing between care professionals working in diverse care contexts to examine the extent to which the care context influences the acceptance of assistive technologies. Methods: A Web-based survey (N=170) was carried out focusing on professional caregivers including medical, geriatric, and disabled people’s caregivers. Based on a scenario, the participants were asked for their perceptions concerning specific technologies, specific types of gathered data, and potential benefits of and barriers to AAL technology usage. Results: The care context significantly impacted the evaluations of AAL technologies (F14,220=2.514; P=.002). Professional caregivers of disabled people had a significantly more critical attitude toward AAL technologies than medical and geriatric caregivers, indicated (1) by being the only caregiver group that rejected evaluations of AAL technology acceptance (F2,118=4.570; P=.01) and specific technologies (F2,118=11.727; P<.001) applied for gathering data and (2) by the comparatively lowest agreements referring to the evaluations of data types (F2,118=4.073, P=.02) that are allowed to be gathered. Conclusions: AAL technology acceptance is critical because of technology implementation reasons, especially in the care of people with disabilities. AAL technologies in care contexts have to be tailored to care professional’s needs and concerns (“care about us”). The results contribute to a broader understanding of professional caregivers’ needs referring to specific data and technology configurations and enclose major differences concerning diverse care contexts. Integrating these findings into user group-tailored technology concepts and communication strategies will support a sustainable adoption of AAL systems in professional care contexts.

  • Discussion by users regarding the use of technology in stroke rehabilitation. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Andrew Kerr; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Adoption of Stroke Rehabilitation Technologies by the User Community: Qualitative Study


    Background: Using technology in stroke rehabilitation is attractive. Devices such as robots or smartphones can help deliver evidence-based levels of practice intensity and automated feedback without additional labor costs. Currently, however, few technologies have been adopted into everyday rehabilitation. Objective: This project aimed to identify stakeholder (therapists, patients, and caregivers) priorities for stroke rehabilitation technologies and to generate user-centered solutions for enhancing everyday adoption. Methods: We invited stakeholders (n=60), comprising stroke survivors (20/60, 33%), therapists (20/60, 33%), caregivers, and technology developers (including researchers; 20/60, 33%), to attend 2 facilitated workshops. Workshop 1 was preceded by a national survey of stroke survivors and therapists (n=177) to generate an initial list of priorities. The subsequent workshop focused on identifying practical solutions to enhance adoption. Results: A total of 25 priorities were generated from the survey; these were reduced to 10 nonranked priorities through discussion, consensus activities, and voting at Workshop 1: access to technologies, ease of use, awareness of available technologies, technologies focused on function, supports self-management, user training, evidence of effectiveness, value for money, knowledgeable staff, and performance feedback. The second workshop provided recommendations for improving the adoption of technologies in stroke rehabilitation: an annual exhibition of commercially available and developing technologies, an online consumer-rating website of available technologies, and a user network to inspire and test new technologies. Conclusions: The key outcomes from this series of stakeholder workshops provides a starting point for an integrated approach to promoting greater adoption of technologies in stroke rehabilitation. Bringing technology developers and users together to shape future and evaluate current technologies is critical to achieving evidence-based stroke rehabilitation.

  • The dashboard overview of a Web-based portal (montage). Source: The Authors /; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    An mHealth Platform for Supporting Clinical Data Integration into Augmentative and Alternative Communication Service Delivery: User-Centered Design and...


    Background: The recent trend of increasing health care costs in the United States is likely not sustainable. To make health care more economically sustainable, attention must be directed toward improving the quality while simultaneously reducing the cost of health care. One of the recommended approaches to provide better care at a lower cost is to develop high-quality data collection and reporting systems, which support health care professionals in making optimal clinical decisions based on solid, extensive evidence. Objective: The objective of this project was to develop an integrated mobile health Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) platform consisting of an AAC mobile app and a Web-based clinician portal for supporting evidence-based clinical service delivery. Methods: A questionnaire and interviews were used to collect clinicians’ ideas regarding what constitutes their desired “clinically relevant” data. In response, a Web-based portal was designed by combining mobile and Web technologies with an AAC intervention to create an integrated platform for supporting data collection, integration, and reporting. Finally, a usability study was conducted with health care professionals. Results: A Web-based portal was created and integrated with a tablet-based AAC mobile app and data analysis procedures. In the usability study, all participants agreed that the integrated platform provided the ability to collect comprehensive clinical evidence, automatically analyze collected data in real time, and generate clinically relevant performance measures through an easily accessible Web-based portal. Conclusions: The integrated platform offers a better approach for clinical data reporting and analytics. Additionally, the platform streamlines the workflow of AAC clinical service delivery.

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