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Journal Description

JMIR Rehab is a PubMed-indexed sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (Impact Factor 2018: 4.945), focusing on development and evaluation of rehabilitation and assistive technologies, including assistive living.

As an open access journal, we are read by clinicians and patients alike and have (as all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies. We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews). Articles are carefully copyedited and XML-tagged, ready for submission in PubMed Central.

 

Recent Articles:

  • Telerehabilitation after knee or hip replacement. Source: iStock by Getty Images; Copyright: AndreyPopov; URL: https://www.istockphoto.com/ca/photo/woman-exercising-on-yoga-mat-in-front-of-tv-gm465643115-33352532; License: Licensed by the authors.

    The Effectiveness of Telerehabilitation as a Supplement to Rehabilitation in Patients After Total Knee or Hip Replacement: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Abstract:

    Background: Telerehabilitation can contribute to the maintenance of successful rehabilitation regardless of location and time. The aim of this study was to investigate a specific three-month interactive telerehabilitation routine regarding its effectiveness in assisting patients with physical functionality and with returning to work compared to typical aftercare. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate a specific three-month interactive telerehabilitation with regard to effectiveness in functioning and return to work compared to usual aftercare. Methods: From August 2016 to December 2017, 111 patients (mean 54.9 years old; SD 6.8; 54.3% female) with hip or knee replacement were enrolled in the randomized controlled trial. At discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and after three months, their distance in the 6-minute walk test was assessed as the primary endpoint. Other functional parameters, including health related quality of life, pain, and time to return to work, were secondary endpoints. Results: Patients in the intervention group performed telerehabilitation for an average of 55.0 minutes (SD 9.2) per week. Adherence was high, at over 75%, until the 7th week of the three-month intervention phase. Almost all the patients and therapists used the communication options. Both the intervention group (average difference 88.3 m; SD 57.7; P=.95) and the control group (average difference 79.6 m; SD 48.7; P=.95) increased their distance in the 6-minute-walk-test. Improvements in other functional parameters, as well as in quality of life and pain, were achieved in both groups. The higher proportion of working patients in the intervention group (64.6%; P=.01) versus the control group (46.2%) is of note. Conclusions: The effect of the investigated telerehabilitation therapy in patients following knee or hip replacement was equivalent to the usual aftercare in terms of functional testing, quality of life, and pain. Since a significantly higher return-to-work rate could be achieved, this therapy might be a promising supplement to established aftercare. Clinical Trial: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00010009; https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do? navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00010009

  • Source: iStock by Getty Images; Copyright: fotostorm; URL: https://www.istockphoto.com/ca/photo/disabled-woman-using-laptop-gm1079012536-289114455; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Development of a Web-Based Monitoring System for Power Tilt-in-Space Wheelchairs: Formative Evaluation

    Abstract:

    Background: A power tilt-in-space wheelchair meets many clinical purposes, including pressure management, increased postural control, and pain management. However, there is a significant gap between the use of tilt as recommended by clinicians and its actual usage. A Web-based electronic health (eHealth) intervention, including a goal setting, monitoring, reminder, and feedback system of the use of power tilt-in-space wheelchairs was developed. The intervention incorporates behavior change principles to promote optimal use of tilt and to improve clinical postprocurement follow-up. Objective: This study aimed to conduct a formative evaluation of the intervention prototype to pinpoint the functionalities needed by end users, namely, power wheelchair users and clinicians. Methods: On the basis of an evaluation framework for Web-based eHealth interventions, semistructured interviews were conducted with power wheelchair users and clinicians. A content analysis was performed with a mix of emerging and a priori concepts. Results: A total of 5 users of power tilt-in-space wheelchairs and 5 clinicians who had experience in the field of mobility aids aged 23 to 55 years were recruited. Participants found the Web interface and the physical components easy to use. They also appreciated the reminder feature that encourages the use of the tilt-in-space and the customization of performance goals. Participants requested improvements to the visual design and learnability of the Web interface, the customization of reminders, feedback about specific tilt parameters, and the bidirectionality of the interaction between the user and the clinician. They thought the current version of the intervention prototype could promote optimal use of the tilt and improve clinical postprocurement follow-up. Conclusions: On the basis of the needs identified by power wheelchair users and clinicians regarding the prototype of a power tilt-in-space wheelchair monitoring system, 3 main directions were defined for future development of the intervention. Further research with new wheelchair users, manual tilt-in-space wheelchairs, various age groups, and family caregivers is recommended to continue the formative evaluation of the prototype.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Jim Makos; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/70764453@N02/20770363861; License: Creative Commons Attribution + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-ND).

    Analyzing the Communication Interchange of Individuals With Disabilities Utilizing Facebook, Discussion Forums, and Chat Rooms: Qualitative Content Analysis...

    Abstract:

    Background: Approximately 1 in 5 adults in the United States are currently living with a form of disability. Although the Americans with Disabilities Act has published guidelines to help make developing technology and social networking sites (SNS) more accessible and user-friendly to people with a range of disabilities, persons with disabilities, on average, have less access to the internet than the general population. The quality, content, and medium vary from site to site and have been greatly understudied. Due to this, it is still unclear how persons with disabilities utilize various platforms of online communication for support. Objective: The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore and compare the interactions and connections among online support groups across Facebook, discussion forums, and chat rooms to better understand how persons with disabilities were utilizing different SNS to facilitate communication interchange, disseminate information, and foster community support. Methods: Facebook groups, discussion forums, and chat rooms were chosen based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Data collected included content posted on Facebook groups, forums, and chat rooms as well as the interactions among group members. Data were analyzed qualitatively using the constant comparative method. Results: A total of 133 Facebook posts, 116 forum posts, and 60 hours of chat room discussions were collected and analyzed. In addition, 4 themes were identified for Facebook posts, 3 for discussion forums, and 3 for chat rooms. Persons with disabilities utilized discussion forums and chat rooms in similar ways, but their interactions on Facebook differed in comparison. They seem to interact on a platform based on the specific functions it offers. Conclusions: Interactions on each of the platforms displayed elements of the 4 types of social support, indicating the ability for social support to be facilitated among SNS; however, the type of social support varied by platform. Findings demonstrate that online support platforms serve specific purposes that may not be interchangeable. Through participation on different platforms, persons with disabilities are able to provide and receive social support in various ways, without the barriers and constraints often experienced by this population.

  • Source: freepik; Copyright: peoplecreations; URL: https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/handicapped-business-executive-using-digital-tablet_1005932.htm#page=1&query=disability&position=17; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    A Collaboration Between Game Developers and Rehabilitation Researchers to Develop a Web-Based App for Persons With Physical Disabilities: Case Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Individuals with a disability and their partners, who often provide care, are both at risk for depression and lower quality of life. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are promising to address barriers to mental health care. Rehabilitation researchers and software development researchers must collaborate effectively with each other and with clinical and patient stakeholders to ensure successful mHealth development. Objective: This study aimed to aid researchers interested in mHealth software development by describing the collaborative process between a team of rehabilitation researchers, software development researchers, and stakeholders. Thus, we provide a framework (conceptual model) for other teams to replicate to build a Web-based mHealth app for individuals with physical disability. Methods: Rehabilitation researchers, software development researchers, and stakeholders (people with physical disabilities and clinicians) are involved in an iterative software development process. The overall process of developing an mHealth intervention includes initial development meetings and a co-design method called design box, in which the needs and key elements of the app are discussed. On the basis of the objectives outlined, a prototype is developed and goes through scoping iterations with feedback from stakeholders and end users. The prototype is then tested by users to identify technical errors and gather feedback on usability and accessibility. Results: Illustrating the overall development process, we present a case study based on our experience developing an app (SupportGroove) for couples coping with spinal cord injury. Examples of how we addressed specific challenges are also included. For example, feedback from stakeholders resulted in development of app features for individuals with limited functional ability. Initial designs lacked accessibility design principles made visible by end users. Solutions included large text, single click, and minimal scrolling to facilitate menu navigation for individuals using eye gaze technology. Prototype testing allowed further refinement and demonstrated high usability and engagement with activities in the app. Qualitative feedback indicated high levels of satisfaction, accessibility, and confidence in potential utility. We also present key lessons learned about working in a collaborative interdisciplinary team. Conclusions: mHealth promises to help overcome barriers to mental health intervention access. However, the development of these interventions can be challenging because of the disparate and often siloed expertise required. By describing the mHealth software development process and illustrating it with a successful case study of rehabilitation researchers, software development researchers, and stakeholders collaborating effectively, our goal is to help other teams avoid challenges we faced and benefit from our lessons learned. Ultimately, good interdisciplinary collaboration will benefit individuals with disabilities and their families.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: peoplecreations; URL: https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/mother-daughter-using-digital-tablet-living-room_1008929.htm#page=3&query=child+tablet+woman&position=49; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Pediatric Speech-Language Pathologists’ Use of Mobile Health Technology: Qualitative Questionnaire Study

    Abstract:

    Background: While technology use in pediatric therapies is increasing, there is so far no research available focusing on how pediatric speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States use technology. Objective: This paper sought to determine if, and to what extent, pediatric SLPs are using mobile applications, to determine what purpose they are using them for, and to identify gaps in available technology to provide guidance for future technological development. Methods: Pediatric SLPs completed an online survey containing five sections: demographics, overall use, use in assessment, use in intervention, barriers, and future directions. Results: Mobile app use by 485 pediatric SLPs in the clinical setting was analyzed. Most (364/438; 83.1%) pediatric SLPs reported using technology ≤50% of the time in their clinical work, with no differences evident by age group (>35 years and ≤35 years) (P=.97). Pediatric SLPs are currently using apps for intervention (399/1105; 36.1%), clinical information (241/1105; 21.8%), parent education (151/1105; 13.7%), assessment (132/1105; 12%), client education (108/1105; 9.8%), and other uses (55/1105; 5.0%). Cost (46/135; 34.1%) and lack of an evidence base (36/135; 26.7%) were the most frequently reported barriers. Most SLPs (268/380; 70.7%) desired more technology use, with no difference evident by age group (P=.81). Conclusions: A majority of pediatric SLPs are using mobile apps less than 50% of the time in a pediatric setting and they use them more during intervention compared to assessment. While pediatric SLPs are hesitant to add to their client’s screen time, they would like more apps to be developed that are supported by research and are less expensive. Implications for future research and app development are also discussed.

  • Training set-up with the exoskeleton. Source: Frontiers in Neuroscience; Copyright: Grimm, Naros and Gharabaghi; URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2016.00518/full; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Exoskeletons With Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Gamification for Stroke Patients’ Rehabilitation: Systematic Review

    Abstract:

    Background: Robot-assisted therapy has become a promising technology in the field of rehabilitation for poststroke patients with motor disorders. Motivation during the rehabilitation process is a top priority for most stroke survivors. With current advancements in technology there has been the introduction of virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), customizable games, or a combination thereof, that aid robotic therapy in retaining, or increasing the interests of, patients so they keep performing their exercises. However, there are gaps in the evidence regarding the transition from clinical rehabilitation to home-based therapy which calls for an updated synthesis of the literature that showcases this trend. The present review proposes a categorization of these studies according to technologies used, and details research in both upper limb and lower limb applications. Methods: A systematic search of the literature on exoskeleton robotics applied with any of the three technologies of interest (VR, AR, or gamification) was performed in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct & The Cochrane Library. Exoskeleton-based studies that did not include any VR, AR or gamification elements were excluded, but publications from the years 2010 to 2017 were included. Results in the form of improvements in the patients’ condition were also recorded and taken into consideration in determining the effectiveness of any of the therapies on the patients. Results: Thirty studies were identified based on the inclusion criteria, and this included randomized controlled trials as well as exploratory research pieces. There were a total of about 385 participants across the various studies. The use of technologies such as VR-, AR-, or gamification-based exoskeletons could fill the transition from the clinic to a home-based setting. Our analysis showed that there were general improvements in the motor function of patients using the novel interfacing techniques with exoskeletons. This categorization of studies helps with understanding the scope of rehabilitation therapies that can be successfully arranged for home-based rehabilitation. Conclusions: Future studies are necessary to explore various types of customizable games required to retain or increase the motivation of patients going through the individual therapies.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: JP Theberge; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/theberge/5508763423/; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Amputees’ Attitudes Toward Participation in Amputee Support Groups and the Role of Virtual Technology in Supporting Amputees: Survey Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Acquiring information about and living with an amputation (or limb differential) is a lifelong endeavor. Although medical institutions address the immediate medical needs of amputees, information regarding how to live life as an amputee is provided from numerous sources, one of which is amputee support groups. Objective: This study aimed at understanding why amputees join support groups, leave support groups, and possibly return to support groups as well as how technology, specifically virtual reality, might play a role in supporting patients’ needs. The results are intended to provide data for support groups, to increase their impact on amputee participants. Methods: A 38-item online survey was developed based on the findings of a previous randomized trial. The survey was administered between April and September 2018 and divided into four sections: Demographics, Limb Loss History, Amputee Support Group Participation, and Technology Usage. Items used multiple-choice, drop-down menu, check-box formats with explanation boxes for open-ended responses. Descriptive analyses were performed for both qualitative (open-ended questions) and quantitative data. Results: Of the 59 amputees enrolled, 54 completed the survey. All the respondents were aged 20-39 years, and nearly half of the older respondents thought audio and video teleconferencing or avatar-based technology would increase participation in support groups. The results suggest that an early goal for amputees who join support groups is to focus on regaining mobility and functionality in order to return to their normal life. Once achieved, the goal transitions to one of social connection with other amputees, although there is a caveat: Simply being an amputee may not provide sufficient connections for developing long-term social relationships. The strongest reason for joining a support group was to learn about living with an amputation, followed by networking and learning new skills. Conclusions: The results suggest four key takeaways regarding amputee participation in support groups: (1) the needs of participants in amputee support groups change over time; (2) meeting content needs to be relevant to agendas primarily driven by participants; (3) support group participation is also driven by the desire to increase functionality by developing skills, become familiar with prosthetic technology, have more than amputation in common with other participants, and participate at the designated meeting time and location; and (4) the use of technology should support patients’ needs.

  • Novel biofeedback system combines a AI-powered Digital Therapist with experienced clinical teams to maximize rehabilitation outcomes. Source: SWORD Health; Copyright: SWORD Health; URL: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1Xnl4BBv6EuYQunIi0diO_nQVjIo6Gh3Q; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Digital Versus Conventional Rehabilitation After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Single-Center, Parallel-Group Pilot Study

    Abstract:

    Background: The demand for total hip arthroplasty (THA) is rising. In the face of rapidly increasing health care costs, ensuring widespread, cost-effective rehabilitation is a priority. Technologies allowing independent home-based rehabilitation may be the key to facilitate access, improve effectiveness, and lower costs of care. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a novel artificial intelligence–powered digital biofeedback system following THA and compare the clinical outcomes against supervised conventional rehabilitation. Methods: This was a single-center, parallel-group pilot study, with an 8-week intervention program. Patients were assessed at baseline, during the program (at 4 and 8 weeks), and 3 and 6 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the Timed Up and Go (TUG) score and secondary outcomes were the Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale (HOOS; a patient-reported outcome) and hip range of motion (ROM). Results: A total of 66 patients were included: 35 digital physiotherapy (PT) versus 31 conventional. There were no differences at baseline between groups except for lower HOOS quality of life (QoL) subscale scores in the digital PT group. Clinically relevant improvements were noted in both groups at all time points. The digital PT group showed a retention rate of 86% (30/35). Per-protocol analysis revealed a superiority of the digital PT group for all outcome measures. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed the superiority of the digital PT group at all time points for TUG (change between baseline and 4 and 8 weeks: P<.001; change between baseline and 3 and 6 months: P=.001 and P=.005, respectively), with a difference between median changes of −4.79 seconds (95% CI −7.24 to −1.71) at 6 months post-THA. Between baseline and month 6, results were also superior in the digital PT group for the HOOS sports and QoL subscales and all ROM except for standing flexion. Conclusions: This study demonstrates this novel solution holds promise in rehabilitation after THA, ensuring better clinical outcomes than conventional rehabilitation while reducing dependence on human resources. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03045549; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03045549

  • The Bern Aphasia App. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: https://rehab.jmir.org/2019/1/e13163; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Therapist-Guided Tablet-Based Telerehabilitation for Patients With Aphasia: Proof-of-Concept and Usability Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Aphasia is the loss or impairment of language functions and affects everyday social life. The disorder leads to the inability to understand and be understood in both written and verbal communication and affects the linguistic modalities of auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reading, and writing. Due to heterogeneity of the impairment, therapy must be adapted individually and dynamically to patient needs. An important factor for successful aphasia therapy is dose and intensity of therapy. Tablet computer–based apps are a promising treatment method that allows patients to train independently at home, is well accepted, and is known to be beneficial for patients. In addition, it has been shown to ease the burden of therapists. Objective: The aim of this project was to develop an adaptive multimodal system that enables aphasic patients to train at home using language-related tasks autonomously, allows therapists to remotely assign individualized tasks in an easy and time-efficient manner, and tracks the patient’s progress as well as creation of new individual exercises. Methods: The system consists of two main parts: (1) the patient’s interface, which allows the patient to exercise, and (2) the therapist’s interface, which allows the therapist to assign new exercises to the patient and supervise the patient’s progress. The pool of exercises is based on a hierarchical language structure. Using questionnaires, therapists and patients evaluated the system in terms of usability (ie, System Usability Scale) and motivation (ie, adapted Intrinsic Motivation Inventory). Results: A total of 11 speech and language therapists (age: mean 28, SD 7 years) and 15 patients (age: mean 53, SD 10 years) diagnosed with aphasia participated in this study. Patients rated the Bern Aphasia App in terms of usability (scale 0-100) as excellent (score >70; Z=–1.90; P=.03) and therapists rated the app as good (score >85; Z=–1.75; P=.04). Furthermore, patients enjoyed (scale 0-6) solving the exercises (score>3; mean 3.5, SD 0.40; Z=–1.66; P=.049). Conclusions: Based on the questionnaire scores, the system is well accepted and simple to use for patients and therapists. Furthermore, the new tablet computer–based app and the hierarchical language exercise structure allow patients with different types of aphasia to train with different doses and intensities independently at home. Thus, the novel system has potential for treatment of patients with aphasia as a supplement to face-to-face therapy.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: https://rehab.jmir.org/2019/1/e13233; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Video Remote Interpreting Technology in Health Care: Cross-Sectional Study of Deaf Patients’ Experiences

    Abstract:

    Background: The advent of new rehabilitation and assistive technologies has led to the creation of video remote interpreting (VRI) as an accessible communication technology for deaf patients. Although there has been a rapid growth in the use of VRI technology by health care providers, there is scant published information on VRI users and their satisfaction. Current, timely data are needed to understand deaf patients’ use and satisfaction with the quality of VRI technology in health care settings. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the national trends of deaf patients’ satisfaction with the quality of video remote interpreting (VRI) in health settings and recommend actions to improve VRI quality and deaf patients’ satisfaction with VRI in health care settings. Methods: Secondary data related to deaf adults’ experiences of using VRI service in a medical setting were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language, which was administered to a US sample of deaf adults between 2016 and 2018. Results: Among our VRI users (N=555, all in the United States) who answered questions about VRI usage in health between 2016 and 2018, only 41% were satisfied with the quality of the VRI technology service. Respondents with fewer years of education or those who were male were more likely to rate the VRI quality as acceptable. After adjusting for covariates in a binary regression analysis, deaf patients’ self-reported interference (ie, VRI interpreter’s interference with disclosure of health information) increased patient dissatisfaction with the quality of VRI technology service by three-fold. Conclusions: To increase satisfaction with VRI technology service in health care and rehabilitation settings among deaf patients, special attention needs to be given to video technology, as the use of sign language requires high-fidelity video for optimal communication between the interpreter and patient. To promote the willingness to disclose medical information through VRI among deaf patients, the interpreter must be highly skilled in both expressive and receptive communication and have the requisite background in medicine and rehabilitation.

  • Source: Rawpixel; Copyright: Rawpixel; URL: https://www.rawpixel.com/image/1474/free-photo-class-students-technology; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Design Requirements for a Digital Aid to Support Adults With Mild Learning Disabilities During Clinical Consultations: Qualitative Study With Experts

    Abstract:

    Background: Adults with mild learning disabilities (MLDs) face a plethora of obstacles when accessing effective health care. Central to many of these barriers is communication, with medical practitioners often remaining untrained on how to interact with patients who have learning disabilities (LDs). To date, research on how to promote this communication has largely centered on the development of low-tech aids. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of utilizing tablet technologies to promote communication between general practitioners and patients with MLDs. We achieved this by identifying a set of design requirements from experts in LDs. Methods: A set of design guidelines was formed during a 2-phase process. Phase 1 involved conducting a series of requirements-gathering interviews with 10 experts in LDs—the protocol of which emerged from the results of a separate scoping review. The interviews were subjected to a framework analysis to discern the key requirements discussed by the experts, and these were embedded within a technology probe. In phase 2, this probe was presented to a subset (n=4) of the experts during a round of usability studies, and the feedback received was used to update the requirements identified in phase 1. Results: An initial set of design requirements has been produced that may assist in the development of clinical Alternative and Augmentative Communication technologies for adults with MLDs. Factors that must be considered range from the health, physical and cognitive needs of stakeholders, to the more individual needs of users. Conclusions: The experts involved in the study were optimistic about the proposed app. They believe that such technologies can help to alleviate time constraints and promote communication by presenting information in a form understood by both practitioners and patients.

  • SWORD Phoenix uses AI and motion tracking to understand the performance of each patient, providing real-time feedback during treatment, under remote guidance from clinical teams. Source: SwordHealth; Copyright: SwordHealth; URL: http://www.swordhealth.com; License: Fair use/fair dealings.

    Medium-Term Outcomes of Digital Versus Conventional Home-Based Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Prospective, Parallel-Group Feasibility Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Physical rehabilitation is recommended after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). With the expected increase in TKA over the next few decades, it is important to find new ways of delivering cost-effective interventions. Technological interventions have been developed with this intent, but only preliminary evidence exists regarding their validity, with short follow-up times. Objective: This study aimed to present the follow-up results of a feasibility study comparing two different home-based programs after TKA: conventional face-to-face sessions and a digital intervention performed through the use of an artificial intelligence-powered biofeedback system under remote clinical monitoring. Methods: The digital intervention uses a motion tracker allowing 3D movement quantification, a mobile app and a Web portal. This study presents the results of the previous single-center, prospective, parallel-group, feasibility study including an 8-week active treatment stage and further assessments at 3 and 6 months post-TKA. Primary outcome was the Timed Up and Go score, and secondary outcomes were the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale (KOOS) score and knee range of motion. Results: A total of 59 patients completed the study (30 in the digital intervention group and 29 in the conventional rehabilitation group) and follow-up assessments. During the active treatment stage, patients in the digital intervention group demonstrated high engagement and satisfaction levels, with an 82% retention rate. Both groups attained clinically relevant improvements from baseline to 6 months post-TKA. At the end of the 8-week program, clinical outcomes were superior in the digital intervention group. At the 3- and 6-month assessments, the outcomes remained superior for the Timed Up and Go score (P<.001) and all KOOS subscale scores (at 3 months, P<.001 overall; at 6 months, KOOS Symptoms: P=.006, Pain: P=.002, Activities of Daily Living: P=.001, Sports: P=.003, and Quality of Life: P=.001). There was progressive convergence between both groups in terms of the knee range of motion, which remained higher for standing flexion in the digital intervention group than the conventional group at 6 months (P=.01). For the primary outcome, at 6 months, the median difference between groups was 4.87 seconds (95% CI 1.85-7.47), in favor of the digital intervention group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that this novel digital intervention for independent home-based rehabilitation after TKA is feasible, engaging, and capable of maximizing clinical outcomes in comparison to conventional rehabilitation in the short and medium term; in addition, this intervention is far less demanding in terms of human resources. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03047252; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03047252

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