JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies

Mobile functional reach test in people who suffer stroke

Background: Postural instability is one of the major complications found in people who survive a stroke. Parameterising the Functional Reach Test (FRT) could be useful in clinical practice and basic research, as this test is a clinically accepted tool (for its simplicity, reliability, economy and portability) to measure the semi-static balance of a subject. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyse the reliability, sensitivity and specificity in the FRT parameterisation using mobiles for recording kinematic variables in patients who have suffered a stroke. Our hypothesis is that the sensors of mobiles will be reliable instruments for kinematic study of the FRT. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 5 subjects over 65 years who suffered a stroke. During the execution of Funtional Reach Test the subjects carried two mobiles; one was placed in the lumbar and the other one in the trunk. After analysing the data obtained in the kinematic registration by the mobiles sensors, a number of direct and indirect variables were obtained. The variables extracted directly from FRT through the mobiles were distance, maximun angular lumbosacral/thoracic displacement, time maximun angular lumbosacral/thoracic displacement, time of return to the initial position and total time. Using this data, speed and acceleration of each of them were calculated. A descriptive analysis of all kinematic outcomes recorded by the two mobiles (trunk and lumbar) was developed and the average range achieved in the FRT. Reliability measures were calculated by analysing the internal consistency of the measures with 95% confidence interval of each outcome variable. The reliability was calculated in the Functional Reach and the outcomes measured by the IS. Results: The values in the Functional Reach Test obtained in the present study (2.49±13.15cm) are similar to those obtained in other studies with this population and in the same age range. Intrasubject reliability values observed in the use of mobiles are all located above 0.831, ranging from 0.831 (time B_C trunk area) and 0.894 (displacement A_B trunk area). Likewise, the observed intersubject values range from 0.835 (time B_C trunk area) and 0.882 (displacement A_C trunk area). On the other hand, the reliability of the FRT was 0.989 (0.981-0.996) and 0.978 (0.970-0.985) intrasubject and intersubject respectively. Conclusions: The main conclusion that can be reached is that the sensors of the mobiles are a tool with excellent reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity in the parameterisation of the Functional Reach Test in people who have had a stroke.

2014-10-27

Open Access and no publication or submission fees!

JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies is a new spin-off journal of JMIR, the leading eHealth journal (Impact Factor 2010: 4.7). JMIR Rehab focusses on development and evaluation of rehabilitation and cyborg technologies, i.e. assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative hi-tech approaches, for example robotic/medical devices, prosthetics, and software for people with chronic or acute conditions and disabilities, as well as for performance enhancement of healthy individuals.

Become a founding author and/or editor in this emerging field and submit your paper to JMIR Rehab and/or apply as section editor (you must have published and reviewed for JMIR to be eligible as editorial board member).

Published by JMIR Publications, publisher of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), the leading eHealth/mHealth journal (Impact Factor 2013: 4.4), JMIR Mental Health publishes even faster and has a broader scope with including papers which are more technical or more formative than what would be published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research.  JMIR Rehabilitation journal features a rapid and thorough peer-review process, professional copyediting, professional production of PDF, XHTML, and XML proofs (ready for deposit in PubMed Central/PubMed), and an ipad App (in prep.). JMIR Rehab adheres to the same quality standards as JMIR and all articles published here are also cross-listed in the Table of Contents of JMIR, the worlds' leading medical journal in health sciences / health services research and health informatics (http://www.jmir.org/issue/current).

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  • Mobile functional reach test in people who suffer stroke

    Date Submitted: Dec 4, 2014

    Open Peer Review Period: Dec 4, 2014 - Jan 29, 2015

    Background: Postural instability is one of the major complications found in people who survive a stroke. Parameterising the Functional Reach Test (FRT) could be useful in clinical practice and basic r...

    Background: Postural instability is one of the major complications found in people who survive a stroke. Parameterising the Functional Reach Test (FRT) could be useful in clinical practice and basic research, as this test is a clinically accepted tool (for its simplicity, reliability, economy and portability) to measure the semi-static balance of a subject. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyse the reliability, sensitivity and specificity in the FRT parameterisation using mobiles for recording kinematic variables in patients who have suffered a stroke. Our hypothesis is that the sensors of mobiles will be reliable instruments for kinematic study of the FRT. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 5 subjects over 65 years who suffered a stroke. During the execution of Funtional Reach Test the subjects carried two mobiles; one was placed in the lumbar and the other one in the trunk. After analysing the data obtained in the kinematic registration by the mobiles sensors, a number of direct and indirect variables were obtained. The variables extracted directly from FRT through the mobiles were distance, maximun angular lumbosacral/thoracic displacement, time maximun angular lumbosacral/thoracic displacement, time of return to the initial position and total time. Using this data, speed and acceleration of each of them were calculated. A descriptive analysis of all kinematic outcomes recorded by the two mobiles (trunk and lumbar) was developed and the average range achieved in the FRT. Reliability measures were calculated by analysing the internal consistency of the measures with 95% confidence interval of each outcome variable. The reliability was calculated in the Functional Reach and the outcomes measured by the IS. Results: The values in the Functional Reach Test obtained in the present study (2.49±13.15cm) are similar to those obtained in other studies with this population and in the same age range. Intrasubject reliability values observed in the use of mobiles are all located above 0.831, ranging from 0.831 (time B_C trunk area) and 0.894 (displacement A_B trunk area). Likewise, the observed intersubject values range from 0.835 (time B_C trunk area) and 0.882 (displacement A_C trunk area). On the other hand, the reliability of the FRT was 0.989 (0.981-0.996) and 0.978 (0.970-0.985) intrasubject and intersubject respectively. Conclusions: The main conclusion that can be reached is that the sensors of the mobiles are a tool with excellent reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity in the parameterisation of the Functional Reach Test in people who have had a stroke.

  • Studying Upper-Limb Kinematic Using Inertial Sensors Embedded in Smartphones.

    Date Submitted: Dec 4, 2014

    Open Peer Review Period: Dec 4, 2014 - Jan 29, 2015

    Background: Background: In recent years, there has been a great interest in analyzing upper-limb kinematics. Inertial measurement through a smartphone is presented as a convenient and portable analysi...

    Background: Background: In recent years, there has been a great interest in analyzing upper-limb kinematics. Inertial measurement through a smartphone is presented as a convenient and portable analysis method for studying humerus kinematics in terms of angular mobility and linear acceleration. Objective: Objective: The aim of this analysis was to study upper-limb kinematics via smartphone through six physical properties that correspond to angular mobility and acceleration in the three axes of space. Methods: Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited healthy young adult subjects. Humerus kinematics were studied in 10 young adults with the iPhone4 smartphone by performing flexion and abduction analytical tasks. Mobility angle and lineal acceleration in each of its axes (yaw, pitch, and roll) were obtained with the iPhone4, which was placed on the right half of the body of each subject, in the middle third of the humerus, slightly posterior. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: Results: Descriptive graphics of analytical tasks performed were obtained. The biggest range of motion was found in pitch angle, and the biggest acceleration was found in the Y-axis in both analytical tasks. Conclusions: Conclusions: The use of a smartphone for humerus tridimensional kinematics is favorable, supporting the smartphone as a useful device to analyze upper-limb kinematics, which may facilitate the evaluation of the patient